1. Fairfield KM, Fletcher RH. Vitamins for chronic disease prevention in adults: scientific review. JAMA. 2002;287(23):3116–3126.
2. Wuster C, Melchinger U, Eversmann T, et al. Reduced incidence of side-effects of growth hormone substitution in 404 patients with hypophyseal insufficiency. Results of a multicenter indications study. Med Klin (Munich). 1998;93(10):585–591.
3. Gotherstrom G, Svensson J, Koranyi J, et al. A prospective study of 5 years of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient adults: sustained effects on body composition, bone mass, and metabolic indices. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86(10):4657–4665.
4. Gibney J, Wallace JD, Spinks T, et al. The effects of 10 years of recombinant human growth hormone (GH) in adult GH-deficient patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999;84(8):2596–2602.
5. Cappola AR, Bandeen-Roche K, Wand GS, Volpato S, Fried LP. Association of IGF-I levels with muscle strength and mobility in older women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86(9):4139–4146.
6. Aleman A, Verhaar HJ, De Haan EH, et al. Insulin-like growth factor-I and cognitive function in healthy older men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999;84(2):471–475.
7. Sugimoto T, Nakaoka D, Nasu M, Kanzawa M, Sugishita T, Chihara K. Effect of recombinant human growth hormone in elderly osteoporotic women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1999;51(6):715–724.
8. Johannsson G, Marin P, Lonn L, et al. Growth hormone treatment of abdominally obese men reduces abdominal fat mass, improves glucose and lipoprotein metabolism, and reduces diastolic blood pressure. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997;82(3):727–734.
9. Albert SG, Mooradian AD. Low-dose recombinant human growth hormone as adjuvant therapy to lifestyle modifications in the management of obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89(2):695–701.
10. Nam SY, Kim KR, Cha BS, et al. Low-dose growth hormone treatment combined with diet restriction decreases insulin resistance by reducing visceral fat and increasing muscle mass in obese type 2 diabetic patients. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001;25(8):1101–1107.
11. Astrom C, Pedersen SA, Lindholm J. The influence of growth hormone on sleep in adults with growth hormone deficiency. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1990;33(4):495–500.
12. Pape GS, Friedman M, Underwood LE, Clemmons DR. The effect of growth hormone on weight gain and pulmonary function in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease. Chest. 1991;99(6):1495–1500.
13. Napoli R, Guardasole V, Matarazzo M, et al. Growth hormone corrects vascular dysfunction in patients with chronic heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;39(1):90–95.
14. Pfeifer M, Verhovec R, Zizek B, Prezelj J, Poredos P, Clayton RN. Growth hormone (GH) treatment reverses early atherosclerotic changes in GH-deficientadults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999;84(2):453–457
15. Irving RJ, Carson MN, Webb DJ, Walker BR. Peripheral vascular structure and function in men with contrasting GH levels. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87(7):3309–3314.
16. Borson-Chazot F, Serusclat A, Kalfallah Y, et al. Decrease in carotid intima-media thickness after one year growth hormone (GH) treatment in adults with GH deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999;84(4):1329–1333.
17. Soares DV, Spina LD, de Lima Oliveira Brasil RR, et al. Carotid artery intimamedia thickness and lipid profile in adults with growth hormone deficiency after long-term growth hormone replacement. Metabolism. 2005;54(3):321–329.
18. Castagnino HE, Lago N, Centrella JM, et al. Cytoprotection by melatonin and growth hormone in early rat myocardial infarction as revealed by Feulgen DNA staining. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2002;23(5-6):391–395.
19. Cittadini A, Berggren A, Longobardi S, et al. Supraphysiological doses of GH induce rapid changes in cardiac morphology and function. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87(4):1654–1659.
20. Svensson J, Fowelin J, Landin K, Bengtsson BA, Johansson JO. Effects of seven years of GH-replacement therapy on insulin sensitivity in GH-deficient adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87(5):2121–2127.
21. Clayton KL, Holly JM, Carlsson LM, et al. Loss of the normal relationships between growth hormone, growth hormone-binding protein and insulin-like growth factor-I in adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1994;41(4):517–524.
22. Yuen KC, Frystyk J, White DK, et al. Improvement in insulin sensitivity without concomitant changes in body composition and cardiovascular risk markers following fixed administration of a very low growth hormone (GH) dose in adults with severe GH deficiency. Clin Endocrinolo (Oxf). 2005;63(4):428–436
23. Mahajan T, Crown A, Checkley S, Farmer A, Lightman S. Atypical depression in growth hormone deficient adults, and the beneficial effects of growth hormone treatment on depression and quality of life. Eur J Endocrinol. 2004;151(3):325–332.
24. Johansson JO, Larson G, Andersson M, et al. Treatment of growth hormone-deficient adults with recombinant human growth hormone increases the concentration of growth hormone in the cerebrospinal fluid and affects neurotransmitters. Neuroendocrinology. 1995;61(1):57–66.
25. Tancer ME, Stein MB, Uhde TW. Growth hormone response to intravenous clonidine in social phobia: comparison to patients with panic disorder and healthy volunteers. Biol Psychiatry. 1993;34(9):591–595.
26. Cameron OG, Abelson JL, Young EA. Anxious and depressive disorders and their comorbidity: effect on central nervous system noradrenergic function. Biol Psychiatry. 2004;56(11):875–883.
27. Stabler B. Impact of growth hormone (GH) therapy on quality of life along the lifespan of GH-treated patients. Horm Res. 2001;56(Suppl 1):55–58.
28. Abelson JL, Glitz D, Cameron OG, Lee MA, Bronzo M, Curtis GC. Blunted growth hormone response to clonidine in patients with generalized anxiety disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1991;48(2):157–162.
29. Bennett RM, Clark SC, Walczyk J. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of growth hormone in the treatment of fibromyalgia. Am J Med. 1998;104(3):227–231.
30. Bennett R. Growth hormone in musculoskeletal pain states. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2005;9(5):331–338.
31. Svensson J, Bengtsson B-A, Rosen T, Oden A, Johannsson G. Malignant disease and cardiovascular morbidity in hypopituitary adults with or without growth hormone replacement therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89(7):3306–3312.
32. Swerdlow AJ, Reddingius RE, Higgins CD, et al. Growth hormone treatment of children with brain tumors and risk of tumor recurrence. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85(12):4444–4449.
33. Tacke J, Bolder U, Herrmann A, Berger G, Jauch KW. Long-term risk of gastrointestinal tumor recurrence after postoperative treatment with recombinant human growth hormone. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2000;24(3):140–144.
34. Finne P, Auvinen A, Koistinen H, et al. Insulin-like growth factor I is not a useful marker of prostate cancer in men with elevated levels of prostate-specific antigen. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85(8):2744–2747.
35. Woodson K, Tangrea JA, Pollak M, et al. Serum insulin-like growth factor I: tumor marker or etiologic factor? A prospective study of prostate cancer among Finnish men. Cancer Res. 2003;63(14):3991–3994.
36. Baffa R, Reiss K, El-Gabry EA, et al. Low serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1): a significant association with prostate cancer. Tech Urol. 2000;6(3):236–239.
37. Harman SM, Metter EJ, Blackman MR, Landis PK, Carter HB; Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging. Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-II, IGF-binding protein-3, and prostate-specific antigen as predictors of clinical prostate cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85(11):4258–4265.
38. Growth hormone treatment. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Growth_hormone_treatment. Accessed February 9, 2007. 39. Klatz R. Grow Young with HGH. New York, NY: Harper Collins; 1997.
40. Savine R, Sonksen P. Growth hormone—hormone replacement for the somatopause? Horm Res. 2000;53(Suppl 3):37–41.
41. Brooke AM, Monson JP. Adult growth hormone deficiency. Clin Med. 2003;3(1):15–19.
42. Lee JM, Menon RK. Growth hormone for short children without a hormone deficiency: issues and practices. Contemporary Pediatrics. 2005;22(10):46–50.
43. Braverman ER, Blum K. Adult growth hormone deficiency: a higher compliance delivery system. Presented at the American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine 10th International Conference in Las Vegas, Nevada, December 6–8, 2002.
44. Rudman D, Feller AG, Nagraj HS, et al. Effects of human growth hormone in men over 60 years old. N Engl J Med. 1990;323(1):1–6.
45. Perls TT, Reisman NR, Olshansky SJ. Provision or distribution of growth hormone for “antiaging”: clinical and legal issues. JAMA. 2005;294(16):2086–2090.
46. Liu H, Bravata DM, Olkin I, et al. Systematic review: the safety and efficacy of growth hormone in the healthy elderly. Ann Intern Med. 2007;146(2):104–115.
47. Hernberg-Stahl E, Luger A, Abs R, et al. Healthcare consumption decreases in parallel with improvements in quality of life during GH replacement in hypopituitary adults with GH deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86(11):5277–5281.
48. Murray RD, Wieringa GE, Lissett CA, Darzy KH, Smethurst LE, Shalet SM. Lowdose GH replacement improves the adverse lipid profile associated with the adult GH deficiency syndrome. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2002;56(4):525–532.
49. Molitch ME, Clemmons DR, Malozowski S, Merriam GR, Shalet SM, Vance ML; Endocrine Society’s Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee, Stephens PA. Evaluation and treatment of adult growth hormone deficiency: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91(5):1621–1634.
50. Huang X, Blackman MR, Herreman K, Pabst KM, Harman SM, Caballero B. Effects of growth hormone and/or sex steroid administration on whole-body protein turnover in healthy aged women and men. Metabolism. 2005;54(9):1162–1167.
51. Gillberg P, Bramnert M, Thoren M, Werner S, Johannsson G. Commencing growth hormone replacement in adults with a fixed low dose. Effects on serum lipoproteins, glucose metabolism, body composition, and cardiovascular function. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2001;11(5):273–281.
52. Ahmad AM, Hopkins MT, Thomas J, Ibrahim H, Fraser WD, Vora JP. Body composition and quality of life in adults with growth hormone deficiency; effects of low-dose growth hormone replacement. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2001;54(6):709–717.
53. Prieto L, Roset M, Badia X. Rasch measurement in the Assessment of Growth Hormone Deficiency in adult patients. J Appl Meas. 2001;2(1):48–64.
54. Klatz RM. A4M official response statement, issued 15 January 2007. Available at: http://www.annals.org/cgi/eletters/146/2/104. Accessed August 28, 2008.
55. Hoffman AR. Treatment of the adult growth hormone deficiency syndrome: directions for future research. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2005;15(Suppl A):S48–S52